(Wikipedia) - Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran
The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (CBI; Persian: بانک مرکزی جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran) is the central bank of Iran. It is entirely government owned. Among its major purposes are: maintenance of the value of the national currency, balance of payments as well as facilitating trade transactions and contributing to the economic advancement of the country.
The Central bank is in charge of laying and implementing monetary and credit policies of the country. Laying exchange policies and determining exchange rates are among the functions of Bank Markazi. The importation of goods, issuance of documentary credits and registration of orders for documentary bills of exchange for imports are also done in accordance with the policies of the Central Bank. It is a member central bank of the Asian Clearing Union. Contents
History See also: Economic history of Iran
- 1 History
- 2 Money and Credit Council
- 3 Governors of the Central Bank of Iran
- 4 Objectives and functions
- 5 Islamic banking
- 6 Credit agency
- 7 Payment systems
- 7.1 Cheques
- 7.2 Debit/credit cards
- 7.3 Hawala
- 8 Anti-money laundering law
- 9 Key statistics
- 9.1 GDP growth
- 9.2 Money supply and inflation
- 9.3 Lending rates
- 9.4 Exchange rates
- 9.5 Banking balance sheets
- 9.6 Foreign reserves
- 9.7 Foreign exposure and transactions
- 10 Inflation and monetary policy
- 10.1 Direct instruments
- 10.2 Indirect instruments
- 11 Central bank balance sheet
- 12 Foreign relations
- 13 Significant buildings
- 14 Contacts
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
During the Achaemenid era, trade boomed and subsequently banking operation expanded to an extent that Iranians managed to learn the banking method from the people of Babylon.
The first attempt at introducing paper currency in Iran occurred during the Mongol Ilkhanate of the 13th century CE. The innovation, developed in Song Dynasty China, did not take hold in Iran, and paper currency did not return to Iran in any significant manner for several centuries. Modern era Further information: Banking in Iran § History
In modern banking, the British first opened the Imperial Bank of Persia in 1889, with offices in all major cities of Persia and India. It was established in 1885 with a concession from the government of Persia to Baron Julius De Reuter, under a Royal charter from Queen Victoria.
To compete with the British bank, Imperial Russia also opened the Russian Loan and Development Bank.
The first state owned Iranian bank, Bank Melli Iran was established in 1927 by the government of Iran. The bank''s primary objective was to facilitate government''s financial transactions and to print and distribute the Iranian currency (rial and toman). For more than 33 years, Bank Melli Iran was acting as the central bank of Iran with the responsibility to maintain the value of Iranian rial.
In August 1960, the Iranian government established the Central Bank of Iran (CBI) and separated all central banking responsibilities from Bank Melli Iran and assigned it to the newly formed central bank.
The Central Bank of Iran was renamed to "the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran" immediately after the Islamic revolution in 1979 and the overthrow of the Shah of Iran. Scope and responsibilities of the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (CBI) have been defined in the Monetary and Banking Law of Iran. CBI has been blacklisted by the U.S. government due to the bank''s involvement in the Iranian nuclear program.
CBI maintains a museum of historic and ancient jewelry owned and used by the ex-kings of Persia. This museum houses the Imperial Crown Jewels and is one of the most appealing tourist attractions in Iran. Money and Credit Council See also: Government of Iran
The Money and Credit Council (MCC) is the highest banking policy-making body of Bank Markazi. Its permanent members include the CBI Governor, the Finance and Economy Minister, two Ministers chosen by the Cabinet, The Head of the Chamber of Commerce, the General Prosecutor and two lawmakers (MPs).
Each year, after approval of the government’s annual budget, the CBI presents a detailed monetary and credit policy to the MCC for approval. Thereafter, major elements of these policies are incorporated in the five-year economic development plan.
The Iranian Central Bank needs more independence from the government in order to combat inflation, according to the country’s Parliament Research Center. As of 2010, Iran’s Central Bank, is not able to conduct a “proactive” monetary policy and has no control over the government’s fiscal policy. General Assembly
The current combination of the Central Bank''s board of directors are the President, Economy and Commerce Ministers, Deputy-President for strategic planning, and a Minister selected by the Cabinet. "Reform" proposal
Seven economists with at least 15 years of work experience were to become members of the general assembly according to a new law proposed by the Majlis in 2010, thus moving this body from being state-dominated to one where the private sector has greater say in the decision making process. Tenure of each member would be for 10 years and only for one term. The President of Iran has stressed that it is important for the Central Bank of Iran not to fall under private control, since it would not benefit the Iranian people over the long run. Governors of the Central Bank of Iran
The President of Iran proposes a person as the governor of CBI, who must be verified by the general assembly and appointed as per a presidential decree. The governors of Central Bank of Iran are as follows:
Objectives and functions See also: Economy of Iran, Iranian rial and Foreign direct investment in Iran
|Ebrahim Kashani ||1960–1961 |
|Ali Asghar Poor Homayoon ||1961–1964 |
|Mahdi Samii ||1964–1969 |
|Khodadad Farmanfarmayan ||1969–1970 |
|Mahdi Samii ||1970–1971 |
|Abdolali Jahanshahi ||1971–1973 |
|Mohammad Yeganeh ||1973–1975 |
|Hassan-Ali Mehran ||1975–1978 |
|Yoosef Khoshkish ||1978–1979 |
|Mohammad Ali Molavi (acting) || 1979 |
|Alireza Nobari ||1979–1981 |
|Mohsen Nourbakhsh ||1981–1986 |
|Majid Ghasemi ||1986–1989 |
|Mohammad Hossein Adeli ||1989–1994 |
|Mohsen Nourbakhsh ||1994–2003 |
|Mohammad Javad Vahhaji (acting) || 2003 |
|Ebrahim Sheibani ||2003–2007 |
|Tahmasb Mazaheri ||2007–2008 |
|Mahmoud Bahmani ||2008–2013 |
|Valiollah Seif ||2013– |
The objectives of the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran as per its charter and according to section 10 of the Monetary and Banking Law of Iran (MBAI) are as follows:
- Maintaining the value of national currency
- Maintaining the equilibrium in the balance of payments
- Facilitating trade-related financial transactions
- Improving the economic growth potential of the country
To achieve the objectives as stated in the MBAI, CBI is endowed with the responsibility of fulfilling the following functions:
Islamic banking See also: Banking and Insurance in Iran and Islamic Development Bank
- Issuance of notes and coins
- Supervision of banks and credit institutions
- Formulation and regulation of foreign exchange policies and transactions
- Regulation on gold transactions
- Formulation and regulation on transactions and inflow/outflow of Domestic currency
After the Islamic Revolution, the Central Bank was mandated to establish an Islamic banking law. In 1983 the Islamic Banking law of Iran was passed by the Majlis. According to this law, Iranian banks can only engage in interest-free Islamic transactions (interest is considered as usury or riba and is forbidden by Islam and the holy book of Qur’an). These are commercial transactions that involve exchange of goods and services in return for a share of the assumed "profit".
Iran uses what are officially termed "provisional" interest rates, as rates paid to depositors or received from borrowers should reflect the profits or losses of a business. Under these rules, deposit rates, known as "dividends", are in theory related to a bank''s profitability. In reality, however, these dividends have become fixed rates of return—depositors have never lost their savings because of losses made by the banks and almost never received returns larger than the provisional ex-ante profit rates. Interest charged on loans is presented as "fees" or a share of corporate profits.
All such transactions are performed through Islamic contracts, such as Mozarebe, Foroush Aghsati, Joale, Salaf, and Gharzol-hassane. Details of these contracts and related practices are outlined in the Iranian Interest-Free banking law and its guidelines. This law describes and authorizes an Iranian Shiite version of Islamic commercial laws. Iran’s banking system adheres to Islamic rules that prohibit earning or paying interest.
Shariah-compliant assets has reached about $400 billion throughout the world, according to Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services, and the potential market is $4 trillion. Iran, Saudi Arabia and Malaysia are at the top with the biggest sharia-compliant assets. Criticism See also: Islamic banking
Critics believe that the Iranian Interest-Free banking law has simply created the context for legitimizing usury or riba. In reality all banks are charging their borrowers a fixed pre-set amount at a rate of interest that is approved by the Central Bank at least once a year. No goods or services are exchanged as part of these contracts and banks rarely assume any Commercial Risk. High value collateral items such as real estate, commercial paper, bank guarantees and machinery eliminate any risk of loss. In case of defaults or bankruptcies, the principal amount, the expected interest and the late fees are collected through possession and or sale of secured collaterals. Credit agency
Iran does not have any special credit rating institute for customer’s credibility rating but all Iranian banks obligated to send statistics of bounced check to central bank of Iran. However follow up on bounced checks are a difficult task.
In 2010, "Iran Credit Rating Consulting Company" became Iran''s first credit agency by decree of the CBI. Payment systems See also: Shetab Banking System, Iranian Economic Reform Plan and Asian Clearing Union
In 2005, the government obliged the Central Bank of Iran and the Iranian banks, mostly state owned, to set up all the necessary infrastructures (regulatory, hardware, software) for fully launching e-money in Iran by March 2005. While this plan has not yet fully materialized, local debit cards are now commonplace and have removed the main obstacle to the growth of e-commerce (in the national scale) as well as the full roll out of e-government initiatives. Iran remains largely a cash-based economy.
The Central Bank has developed the Real Time Gross Settlement System (SATNA) as the main center for settlement of Iranian banks'' transactions in rial. Upon implementation of the first and second phases of this system in 2006/07, real time settlement through the interbank information transfer network (Shetab Banking System) and interbank clearing house was started in the review year. Since 2007/08, bank-to-bank and customer-to-customer payments were also settled through SATNA. The Retail Funds Transfer System (SAHAB), launched at end-2006/07 for real time transfer of a large volume of payments of relatively small value, was further developed in 2007/08. Moreover, there are further plans to connect Iran''s SHETAB to information transfer networks of other countries.
In 2011 2 new payment systems were launched: Scripless Securities Settlement System (TABA) as the electronic infrastructure for placement and settlement of various securities, including governmental and CBI participation papers. The launching of the automated clearing house system (PAYA) for processing individual and multiple payment orders, connection of Iran''s Interbank Information Transfer Network (SHETAB) to other ATM and POS switch systems for the acceptance of international bank cards, designing of the electronic card payment system (SHAPARAK) for the centralization and reorganization of POSs. Cheques See also: Cheques in Iran and Audit trail
As of January 21, 2010 account holders will no longer be allowed to withdraw more than $15,000 from Iranian banks but they can still write checks for larger amounts. The government wants people to use bank checks and electronic banking systems instead of cash transactions. The proportion of cheques bouncing rose to about 10.7% in 2009. Debit/credit cards See also: Shetab Banking System
In 2007, Tetra-Tech IT Company announced that using Visa and MasterCard is now possible for online sales and in Iranian e-card terminals at shopping malls, hotels, restaurants, and travel agencies for Iranians and foreign tourists. Iran''s electronic commerce will reach 10 trillion rials ($1 billion) by March 2009. Hawala Main article: Hawala
Many Iranian businesses and individuals also rely on hawala, an informal trust-based money transfer system that exists in the Middle East and other Muslim countries. Since the imposition of recent U.S. and UN financial sanctions on Iran, the use of hawala by Iranians reportedly has increased. Anti-money laundering law See also: Know your customer, Illegal drugs in Iran and Crime in Iran
The Central Bank of Iran is enforcing the newly-passed Anti-Money Laundering law to curb possible crime. The minister of intelligence, the governor of the Central Bank of Iran (CBI) and several other ministers are among the members of the special committee in charge of the campaign against money laundering. In 2008, the Paris-based Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Watchdog praised the Islamic Republic''s crackdown on money laundering. The 34-member financial watchdog congratulated Tehran on its commitment to seal money laundering loopholes. However in 2010, FATF, named Ecuador and Iran on a list of states that it says are failing to comply with international regulations against money laundering and financing terrorism. Key statistics See also: Economy of Iran and Monetary and Banking Research Institute
As of 2010, major economic indicators will no longer be announced by the Central Bank but will instead be reported by the Statistical Center of Iran. GDP growth See also: Iranian Economic Reform PlanIran''s nominal GDP & projections by the World Bank and the Economist (1999-2015 est.)
- The Government of Iran projects GDP growth to average 8% between 2010 and 2015 in its 5-year economic development plan.
- According to Business Monitor International (BMI) in 2010, growth will average 3.6% between 2009/2010 and 2013/2014. This is substantially below an estimated 5.6% for previous 5 years.
- The International Monetary Fund (IMF) forecasts Iran''s economy will grow 1.6% in 2010 and 0% in 2011, from 1.1% in 2009 and 1% in 2008 and 7.8% in 2007. Through the successful implementation of the Iranian Economic Reform Plan (targeted energy subsidy plan in particular), the IMF predicts Iran''s economy to grow at a rate of 8% by 2014/2015.
Money supply and inflation See also: Tehran Stock Exchange, Cash subsidies and Mehr Housing SchemeBetween 2002 and 2006, the rate of inflation in Iran has been fluctuating between 12 and 16%
- Projections by the Economist in 2010 place Iran''s nominal GDP at $701.9 billion in 2013. The Economist''s 2010-revised projections for GDP growth in Iran are: 3.0% (2010); 3.0% (2011); 2.9% (2012); 3.1% (2013); 2.9% (2014); 2.9% (2015).
- Money supply: The International Monetary Fund reports that in 2001, currency and demand deposits—an aggregate commonly known as M1—were equal to $71.7 billion. In that same year, M2—an aggregate equal to M1 plus savings deposits, small time deposits, and money market mutual funds—was $153.6 billion. According to the CBI, the country''s liquidity amounted to some $174 billion by April 2008, $197 billion by October 2009. and over $300 billion in 2011. Estimates put the amount of capital floating in Iran''s market at $254 billion in 2012.
Lending rates See also: Interest rates in Iran
- Inflation: According to the Central Bank of Iran, inflation rate was 13.5% in 2009 and 25.6% in 2008.
Exchange rates Main article: Iran''s currency value
- Commercial banks'' lending rate: 12.0% (2007), 11.5% (2008), 12.0% (2009). Free market rate is 24-25 percent (Aug 2009).
note: Iran has been using a managed floating exchange rate regime since unifying multiple exchange rates in March 2002. Pre-unification, rials per US dollar:Market: 8,200 (2002), 8,050 (2001), 8,350 (2000) Official: 6,906 (2002), 1,753 (2001), 1,764 (2000)Banking balance sheets See also: Assests and liabilities of Iranian banks
- Average exchange rates: rials per US dollar - 12,175.5 (2012 est.), 10,800 (2011 est.), 10,308 (2010), 9,900 (2009), 9,143 (2008), 9,408 (2007), 9,227 (2006), 8,964 (2005), 8,885 (2004), 8,193 (2003)
- Debt: The government''s and banks'' debts to the central bank dropped from 905,926 billion Rials (about 90 billion Dollars) in November 2008 to about 776,486 billion Rials (about 77 billion Dollars) in November 2009. According to CBI reports, the value of its assets fell by 11.6 percent during the last 12 months to 1,137,455 Rials in November 2009. Meanwhile, the total debt of 11 state-run banks alone to the Central Bank of Iran has exceeded $32 billion in 2009, showing a 10-fold increase over the past four years. Bank Melli Iran, with nearly $9 billion, had the biggest debt followed by Bank Sepah, Iran''s oldest, with about $4.8 billion. Bank Maskan, Keshavarzi Bank, Bank of Industry and Mines and the Export Development Bank of Iran were next with the respective debts of $4.7, $4.1, $3.5 and $1.1 billion. Private-sector banks had much lower debts. Bank Parsian, the largest private-run bank, owed about $421 million to the Central Bank. In addition, the collective debt of state-sector companies to the Central Bank has reached $25 billion (2009).
Foreign reserves See also: Iran''s below ground gold reserves and Iranian Crown Jewels
- Overdue loans: According to unofficial figures, overdue loans have reached IR175,000bn ($17.8bn, €13.6bn, £11bn), an increase of 75 per cent over three years (November 2008). Plan to inject about $13 billion to recapitalize the banking sector (2008) Ninety individuals have managed to secure collective facilities totaling $8 billion from Iranian banks, with previous $27 billion unpaid loans (2009). In October 2009, Iran''s General Inspection Office informed that Iranian banks have some USD 38 billion of delinquent loans, while they are only capitalized at USD 20 billion. Current average for late debts of Iran''s state banks is over 15 percent while the global standard is 3 to 5 percent.
In 2007, 10% of the reserves were held in gold, 20% in US dollars (down from 40% in 2006), the rest mostly in Euro and other major currencies (i.e., Yen, British Pound and the Swiss Franc).In 2009, Iran''s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ordered the replacement of the US dollar by the euro in the country''s foreign exchange accounts because "it would help decouple Iran from the US banking system."In October 2010, Iran''s gold reserves hit "record high" as the Central Bank took "preventive measures" to avoid a possible asset freeze by Western countries. In 2009, when the gold price was on average $656 per once, a "few hundred tons" of gold were imported, IRNA quoted CBI Governor Mahmoud Bahmani. "At present, the price of each ounce of gold is $1,230. Consequently, the value of the national reserves has risen by a few billion dollars" he said. Iran has changed 15% of its foreign exchange reserves into gold as the number is 1.7% for countries such as India and China (see also: U.S. sanctions against Iran.)In January 2012, the head of Tehran''s Chamber of Commerce reported that Iran had 907 tons of gold, purchased at an average of $600 per ounce and worth $54 billion at today''s price. The CBI governor however reports only 500 tones (i.e. above ground gold reserves). The discrepancy is unexplained but the 907 tons could (mistakenly) include below-ground gold reserves (320 metric tons as of 2012) and possibly the Iranian Crown Jewels or the gold in Iranian private hands (~100 tons in coins, jewelry or bullion). In 2014, reports from the Central Bank put its gold stores at 90 tons only, the rest possibly used in barter trade following sanctions.Oil revenues See also: Iran''s oil and gas revenues and Supreme Audit Court of Iran
- Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $40 billion (2005) to $80 billion (2008) to $100 billion (2010) because of a sharp increase in the price of oil (and non-oil exports). Iran''s foreign currency and gold reserves amounted to $110bln in 2011.
$35 billion in imported goods (2005–2009), $25 billion in oil revenues (2005–2008), $2.6 billion in non-oil export revenues, $3 billion in foreign exchange reserves.This is a large number as it is equal one-tenth of Iran''s total oil revenues since the 1979 revolution.Oil Stabilization Fund (OSF) and National Development Fund See also: Public finance and fiscal policy In Iran and National Development Fund
- Oil revenues: Foreign currency proceeds from crude sales are managed by the Central Bank. According to Farda newspaper, the difference between President Ahmadinejad administration''s revenues and the amount deposited with the Central Bank of Iran exceeds $66 billion. This amount is broken down as follows:
In October 2000, the parliament approved establishment of the Oil Stabilization Fund (OSF).
- Purpose: Part of the reserves are held in the $23.3 billion (2006) Oil Stabilization Fund, designed for capital investment or for budget support if oil prices - Iran''s main foreign exchange earner – fall perilously low.
- Funding: Any budget surplus revenues from the sale of crude oil and gas is to be paid into the Oil Stabilization Fund (OSF). 80% of Iran''s FOREX earnings comes from oil.
Foreign exposure and transactions See also: FDI statistics in Iran and Sanctions against Iran
- A new fund will supplement the Oil Stabilization Fund in 2011 called the National Development Fund. Based on Article 84 of the Fifth Five-year Socio Economic Development Plan (2011-2015), the National Development Fund was established to transform oil and gas revenues to productive investment for future generation. The money will increasingly be deposited in domestic banks. Accordingly, 20% of oil income is to be transferred to the National Development Fund. The new fund is to extend 50% of its financial facilities to private, cooperative and non-governmental sectors and 20% to promote foreign investment. It is foreseen that the Development Fund will reach $30 billion by March 2012.
- Iran''s foreign debt: $22.07 billion in 2010 ($10.6 billion of short-term debts and $11.4 billion of mid-term and long-term debts).
- Iran''s deposits in foreign banks: stand at $35 billion while its obligations amount to $25 billion (2007). In 2007, Iran had $62 billion worth of assets held abroad. According to the Bank for International Settlements, Iran''s deposits with 39 world banks reached $15.44 billion at the end of March 2012 while its obligations stood at $10.088 billion. In addition it was reported that Iran had between 10-20 billion dollars held in foreign banks in 2011, allegedly because of payment problems by foreign companies to Iran. According to E.U. sources, despite the European sanctions, Iran has still "several billion euros" deposited in accounts in Germany, Italy, Malta, Spain, Greece and Switzerland (2012). As at 2013, only $30 billion to $50 billion of its foreign exchange reserves (i.e. roughly 50% of total) is accessible because of the international sanctions.
- Transactions: Foreign transactions with Iran amounted to $150 billion between 2000 and 2007 worth of major contracts and both private and government lines of credit. According to the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), the balance of Iran’s foreign exchange interactions in foreign banks and financial institutes during Q3 2008 stood above $24.3 billion.
Inflation and monetary policy See also: Islamic banking in Iran, Public finance and fiscal policy in Iran, Iranian Rial and Seigniorage
Iran''s balance of payment (2003-2007). Its capital account (both long and short term) has been decreasing during that same period.
Iran''s trade balance (2000-2007). For the first time, the value of Iran’s non-oil exports is expected to reach the value of imports by 2012.
Iran''s total debt service as percent of exports of goods services and income increased sixfold between 1990 and 1997.
Iran''s oil and gas projected revenues chart by the International Monetary Fund. On the other side, Iranian officials estimate that Iran''s annual oil and gas revenues could reach $250 billion by 2015.
Stock of Foreign direct investment. By 2009 Iran had invested $793 million abroad and received $7.854 billion at home.
US dollar/Iranian rial historical exchange rates (2003-2013)
Iran''s GDP and population growth, 1967–2007
The performance of the Tehran Stock Exchange has had no correlation with major exchanges or emerging stock markets over the past few years and not even with the oil price
Iran''s oil and non-oil real GDP growth (2000-2011)
Iran''s CPI, broad money & foreign exchange reserves (2000-2011). Governor Mahmoud Bahmani said Iran imported "hundreds of tons of gold" when its price was at an average of $656 per ounce.
Unemployment rate, per-capita income growth and minimum wage in Iran (2000-2009).
since the Revolution the government’s general budget payments have averaged 59 percent for social affairs, 17 percent for economic affairs, 15 percent for national defense, and 13 percent for general affairs.
Less than a quarter of Iran''s market liquidity is directed towards productivity. The rest is used in trade (e.g. import/export), speculative investments or simply deposited into bank accounts (hard currency).
Sectors of the Iranian economy. (2002)
Double digit inflation rates have been a fact of life in Iran for the past 20 years. Between 2002 and 2006, the rate of inflation in Iran has been fluctuating between 12 and 16%.
Monetary policy in Iran has not been successful in meeting the inflation and monetary targets set in the Iranian Five-Year Development Plans, owing mainly to the monetary impact of government spending out of oil revenue. Although the attainment of the inflation targets has improved somewhat recently, the objective of a gradual disinflation to single-digit levels has not been achieved. Moreover, the implicit intermediate target of monetary policy, money growth, has been systematically missed.
The Central Bank is an extension of the Iranian government and as such it does not operate independently. Interest rate is usually set based on political priorities and not monetary targets. There is little alignment between fiscal and monetary policy.
The Central Bank assesses the inflation rate with the use of the prices of 395 goods and services in Iran''s urban areas.
High levels of inflation have also been associated with a growth in Iran''s money supply. The Central Bank''s data suggest that the money supply growth has been about 40% annually. The rapid growth of money supply came from high demands for borrowing capital at the rate of 12% the banks offer, imposed by the Government to make credit accessible to average Iranians and small entrepreneurs. However, this rate is lower than the rate of inflation. This makes the cost of borrowing less than free market cost as determined by supply and demand, based on the inflation rate and investment risk. Direct instruments
- Banking profit rates - As of 2010, the interest rate charged between banks (i.e. interbank rate) is set by the government of Iran.
- Credit ceiling - the CBI can intervene in and supervise monetary and banking affairs through limiting banks, specifying the mechanisms for use of funds and determining the ceiling of loans and credits in each sector.
- Reserve requirement ratio - According to Article 14 of the Monetary and Banking Law of Iran, the CBI is authorized to determine reserve requirement ratio within 10 to 30 percent depending on banks’ liabilities’ composition and field of activity.
- CBI Participation Papers - The Central Bank must obtain approval from the Majlis in order to issue participation papers.
Central bank balance sheet
- Open deposit account (ODA): control liquidity through absorption of banks’ excess resources. The CBI pays profit to these deposits with the CBI on the basis of specific rules.
Note: 1/ Includes some liabilities in foreign currency to residents.Foreign relations See also: Foreign relations of Iran and Foreign banks in Iran
Source: International Monetary Fund (In billions of rials; unless otherwise indicated) Prel. 2008/09 Proj. 2009/10
|Net foreign assets (NFA) ||703,329 ||789,498 |
|In millions of U.S. dollars ||72,381 ||77,050 |
|-Foreign assets ||773,352 ||863,336 |
|In millions of U.S. dollars ||79,587 ||84,257 |
|-Foreign liabilities 1/ ||70,023 ||73,839 |
|In millions of U.S. dollars ||7,206 ||7,206 |
|Net domestic assets (NDA) ||-139,843 ||-225,654 |
|Net domestic credit ||-5,141 ||21,083 |
|-Central government, net ||-283,735 ||-228,046 |
|Claims ||74,779 ||74,779 |
|Deposits ||358,514 ||302,824 |
|-Claims on banks ||239,758 ||206,409 |
|-Claims on non financial public enterprises (NFPEs) ||38,836 ||42,719 |
|-Other items net, excluding central bank participation papers (CPPs) ||-134,701 ||-246,737 |
|Base money ||556,925 ||556,925 |
|Currency ||206,352 ||200,745 |
|-Currency in circulation ||157,764 ||153,478 |
|-Cash in vaults ||48,588 ||47,268 |
|Reserves ||334,495 ||338,445 |
|-Required reserves ||225,228 ||307,757 |
|-Excess reserves ||109,267 ||30,688 |
|Deposits of NFPE and municipalities ||16,078 ||17,734 |
|Other liabilities ||6,561 ||6,919 |
|-CPPs ||0 ||0 |
|-Foreign currency deposits of NFPEs and municipalities ||6,561 ||6,919 |
|Memorandum items: End-period change (in percent of base money) || || |
|-Base money ||45.4 ||0.0 |
|-NFA ||13.4 ||15.5 |
|-NDA (net of other liabilities) ||32.0 ||-15.5 |
Iran is member of the Islamic Development Bank. As of August 2006, the World Bank has financed 48 development projects in the country for a total original commitment of US$3,413 million. World Bank loans to Iran come only from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). Iran is a member of the World Bank''s Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency. Iran joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on December 29, 1945. CBI governors attend IMF''s board discussions on Iran on behalf of the government. These meetings are usually held once a year in Washington, D.C.. The Central Bank of Iran has an observer status at the annual meetings of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in Basel, Switzerland. US sanctions Main article: Sanctions against Iran
The US Treasury Department has also stepped up its attempt to restrict financing of foreign investment and trade with Iran. In January 2006, Swiss banks UBS and Credit Suisse announced separately that they were halting operations in Iran. In September 2006 the Treasury Department banned all dealings by Bank Saderat Iran with the US financial system, and in January 2007 it also blacklisted Bank Sepah and its British subsidiary, Bank Sepah International. In October 2007 the US Treasury blacklisted Bank Melli and Bank Mellat.
Under pressure from the US, 12 Chinese banks have reduced ties with Iranian banks since early September 2007, but five of them resumed commercial ties in mid-January 2008. In mid-February 2008, the US Treasury alleged that Bank Markazi (Iran’s central bank) helped the blacklisted banks evade US sanctions, by conducting transactions for them. The allegations could lead to sanctions and stiff penalties against Iran’s central bank, especially if US allies participate in them. Barter trade
The Central Bank possesses limited foreign cash reserves due to the international sanctions and problems in the transfer of funds in and out of country. In 2012, The U.S. unilaterally expanded sanctions, which cut off from the US financial system foreign firms that do business with the central bank. Iran is reportedly making increasing use of barter trade, gold and local currencies of its trading partners to circumvent the international sanctions. The CBI has been blocked from using SWIFT as of March 2012. Significant buildings See also: Central Bank of Islamic Republic of Iran''s Tower
- Mirdamad Building - 144 Mirdamad Boulevard, Tehran, Iran
- Ferdowsi Building - Ferdowsi Ave, Tehran, Iran
- Jewelry Museum - Ferdowsi Ave, Tehran, Iran
- Official website
- SWIFT Address: BMJIIRTH
- Postal address: 144 Mirdamad Boulevard, Tehran, Iran