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Updated:Monday 13th October 2014

Hashemite ?

Hashemite Definition

(Wikipedia) - Hashemites   (Redirected from Hashemite) Not to be confused with Hashem. House of Hashim Country Parent house Titles Founded Founder Final ruler Current head Dissolution
Kingdom of Hejaz (Saudi Arabia), Jordan, Iraq and Yemen
Banu Hashim, a branch of the Quraysh tribe.
Sharif of Mecca, King of Jordan, King of Iraq, King of Hejaz, King of Syria, Imam of Yemen
Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca
Muhammad al-Badr in Yemen, Faisal II in Iraq, Jordanian branch is extant.
King Abdullah II (Jordan) Ra''ad bin Zeid (Iraq) Ageel bin Muhammad al-Badr (Yemen)
1962 in Yemen (North Yemen Civil War), 1958 in Iraq (14 July Revolution)

Hashemite (also spelled Hashimite), is the English-language version of the Arabic: هاشمي‎, transliteration: Hāšimī, and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or "clan of Hashim", an Arabian clan within the larger Quraysh tribe. It also refers to an Arab dynasty whose original strength stemmed from the network of tribal alliances and blood loyalties in the Hejaz region of Arabia, along the Red Sea.

  • 1 History
  • 2 During and after World War I
  • 3 Other Hashemites today
  • 4 Family tree
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

HistoryA letter in Persian written by Khawaja Zia-ud-Din, to Qazi Mian Muhammad Amjad, requesting him to lend the book Kihalastah al-Nisab, a treatise written by Al-Hilli, on the descendants of Ali; this rare tome also covers the descendants of Ali who migrated to lands outside Arabia - including the Indian subcontinent - following the rise of the Umayyad Caliphate. The treatise is the oldest work dealing with the history of the Awan (tribe).

The Hashemites trace their ancestry from Hashim ibn ''Abd Manaf (died c. 511 AD), the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, although the definition today mainly refers to the descendants of Muhammad''s daughter, Fatimah. The early history of the Hashemites saw them in a continuous struggle against the Umayyads for control over who would be the caliph or successor to Muhammad. The Umayyads were of the same tribe as the Hashemites, but a different clan. After the overthrow of the Umayyads, the Abbasids would present themselves as representatives of the Hashemites, as they claimed descent from Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, an uncle of Muhammad. Muhammad''s father had died before he was born, and his mother died while he was a child, so Muhammad was raised by his uncle Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, chief of the Hashemites.

From the 10th century onwards, the sharif (religious leader) of Mecca and its Emir was, by traditional agreement, a Hashemite. Before World War I, Hussein bin Ali of the Hashemite Dhawu-''Awn clan ruled the Hejaz on behalf of the Ottoman sultan. For some time it had been the practice of the Sublime Porte to appoint the Emir of Mecca from among a select group of candidates. In 1908, Hussein bin Ali was appointed to the Emirate of Mecca. He found himself increasingly at odds with the Young Turks in control at Istanbul, while he strove to secure his family''s position as hereditary Emirs.

During and after World War I

Sharif Hussein bin Ali rebelled against the rule of the Ottomans during the Arab Revolt of 1916. Between 1917 and 1924, after the collapse of Ottoman power, Hussein bin Ali ruled an independent Hejaz, of which he proclaimed himself king, with the tacit support of the British Foreign Office. His supporters are sometimes referred to as "Sharifians" or the "Sharifian party". Hussein bin Ali''s chief rival in the Arabian Peninsula, the king of the Najd (highlands), Ibn Saud, annexed the Hejaz in 1925 and established his own son, Faysal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, as governor. The region was later incorporated into Saudi Arabia.

Hussein bin Ali had five sons:

  • Ali, who briefly succeeded to the throne of Hejaz before its loss to the Saud family in 1925.
  • Abdullah, who later became the king of Transjordan, and whose descendants continue to rule the kingdom known ever since as the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
  • Faisal, briefly proclaimed King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria, became King of Iraq.
  • Prince Zeid bin Hussein, who moved to Jordan when his brother''s grandson, King Faisal II of Iraq, was overthrown and murdered in a coup in 1958.
  • Hassan, died at a young age.
Other Hashemites today

Today Hashemites have spread in many places where Muslims have ruled, namely Iran, Afghanistan, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Qatar, Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Somalia, Yemen, Djibouti, United Arab Emirates, Ethiopia, Northern Sudan, and Turkey. Some Hashemites in these countries carry the title Sayyid. Many members of the Banu Hashim have spread out across the world but so far there has been no attempt to register them all under one record. The Royal family of Morocco also claims ancestry from Ali (Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib) but they do not use Hashemite as their dynastic name. The Awan tribe of Pakistan also trace their ancestry from Ali.

Christophe Jaffrelot states

The Awan deserve close attention, because of their historical importance and, above all, because they settled in the west, right up to the edge of Baluchi and Pashtun territory. Legend has it that their origins go back to Imam Ali and his second wife, Hanafiya. Historians describe them as valiant warriors who imposed their supremacy on the Janjua and other Rajput tribes in part of the Salt Range, and established large colonies all along the Indus to Sind, and a densely populated centre not far from Lahore. Such types of claims are very common in in the Indian subcontinent.

Family treeGenealogical tree of the Hashemite family showing their descent from Muhammad.

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