Yazd is an ancient city at the centre of Iran.Yazd is the capital of Yazd Province in Iran, and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. The city is located some 175 miles southeast of Isfahan. Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd is an architecturally unique city. It is also known in Iran for the high quality of its handicrafts, especially silk weaving, and its sweet shops.The city has a history of over 3,000 years, dating back to the time of the Median Empire, when it was known as Ysatis (or Issatis). The present city name has however been Yazdan, Persian word for God. The city was definitely a Zoroastrian centre during Sassanid times. After the Arab conquest of Persia, many Zoroastrians fled to Yazd from neighboring provinces. The city remained Zoroastrian even after the conquest by paying a levy, and only gradually did Islam come to be the dominant religion in the city.Because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of approach, Yazd had remained largely immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persia during the invasion of Chengiz Khan. It was visited by Marco Polo in 1272 who remarked on the city's fine silk-weaving industry. It briefly served as the capital of the Mozaffarid Dynasty in the fourteenth century, and was under siege unsuccessfully in 1350–1351 by the Injuids under Sheikh Abu Ishaq. The Amir Chakmakh Mosque, arguably the city's greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. Under the rule of the Safavis (16th century), some people emigrated from Yazd and settled in an area which is today on the Iran-Afghanistan border. The settlement was named Yazdi. This place is currently on the Iran-Afghanistan border in the province of Farah, in Farah city in Afghanistan. Even today, these people speak with an accent very similar to that of the people of Yazd. (Wikipedia) - Yazd For the administrative subdivisions, see Yazd Province and Yazd County. For the village in Khuzestan Province, see Yazd-e Now.
| Clockwise from top: Amir Chakhmaq Complex, Yazd Fire Temple, and Dowlat Abad Garden. |
|Coordinates: 31°53′50″N 54°22′04″E / 31.89722°N 54.36778°E / 31.89722; 54.36778Coordinates: 31°53′50″N 54°22′04″E / 31.89722°N 54.36778°E / 31.89722; 54.36778 |
|1,216 m (3,990 ft) |
|IRST (UTC+3:30) |
• Summer (DST)
|IRDT (UTC+4:30) |
Yazd ( pronunciation (help·info) ; Persian: Yazd) is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran, and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. The city is located 270 km (170 mi) southeast of Isfahan. At the 2006 census, the population was 423,006, in 114,716 families.
Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd is an architecturally unique city. It is also known in Iran for the high quality of its handicrafts, especially silk weaving, and its confectionary. Contents
- 1 Climate
- 2 History
- 3 Architecture and heritage
- 4 Pilgrimage and other religious congregations
- 5 Historical sites
- 6 Industrialization
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Famous people
- 9 Education
- 10 Sister cities
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Yazd is the driest major city in Iran, with an average annual rainfall of only 60 millimetres (2.4 in), and also the hottest north of the Persian Gulf coast, with summer temperatures very frequently above 40 °C (104 °F) in blazing sunshine with no humidity. Even at night the temperatures in summer are rather uncomfortable. In the winter, the days remain mild and sunny, but in the morning the thin air and low cloudiness cause very cold temperatures that can sometimes fall well below 0 °C (32 °F).
HistoryAmir Chakhmaq Square
Climate data for Yazd
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F)
|27.0 (80.6) ||28.0 (82.4) ||32.0 (89.6) ||37.0 (98.6) ||41.0 (105.8) ||44.0 (111.2) ||45.0 (113) ||45.6 (114.1) ||42.0 (107.6) ||36.0 (96.8) ||30.0 (86) ||27.4 (81.3) ||45.6 (114.1) |
Average high °C (°F)
|12.2 (54) ||14.8 (58.6) ||19.5 (67.1) ||21.9 (71.4) ||33.4 (92.1) ||36.3 (97.3) ||39.5 (103.1) ||36.1 (97) ||35.3 (95.5) ||26.5 (79.7) ||19.3 (66.7) ||17.0 (62.6) ||26.0 (78.8) |
Daily mean °C (°F)
|5.1 (41.2) ||8.0 (46.4) ||13.5 (56.3) ||19.5 (67.1) ||25.4 (77.7) ||30.8 (87.4) ||32.4 (90.3) ||30.4 (86.7) ||26.1 (79) ||19.5 (67.1) ||12.1 (53.8) ||6.8 (44.2) ||19.13 (66.43) |
Average low °C (°F)
|−0.8 (30.6) ||0.1 (32.2) ||5.3 (41.5) ||9.5 (49.1) ||17.7 (63.9) ||20.0 (68) ||23.3 (73.9) ||19.9 (67.8) ||18.7 (65.7) ||8.6 (47.5) ||2.3 (36.1) ||−0.7 (30.7) ||10.3 (50.6) |
Record low °C (°F)
|−14 (7) ||−10 (14) ||−7 (19) ||0.0 (32) ||5.6 (42.1) ||11.0 (51.8) ||16.0 (60.8) ||12.0 (53.6) ||2.0 (35.6) ||−3 (27) ||−10 (14) ||−16 (3) ||−16 (3) |
Precipitation mm (inches)
|7.0 (0.276) ||0.8 (0.031) ||11.0 (0.433) ||21.9 (0.862) ||0.6 (0.024) ||2.0 (0.079) ||0.0 (0) ||0.0 (0) ||3.0 (0.118) ||0.0 (0) ||2.0 (0.079) ||0.0 (0) ||48.3 (1.902) |
Avg. precipitation days
|1 ||3 ||2 ||11 ||1 ||1 ||1 ||0 ||1 ||0 ||2 ||0 ||23 |
|53 ||46 ||37 ||33 ||25 ||18 ||17 ||18 ||19 ||27 ||38 ||47 ||31.5 |
Mean monthly sunshine hours
|181.6 ||203.0 ||207.5 ||230.9 ||293.9 ||334.1 ||340.7 ||335.0 ||313.1 ||278.1 ||217.8 ||193.4 ||3,129.1 |
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation |
|Source #2: NOAA (extremes, mean, sun, humidity, 1961–1990) |
The city has a history of over 3,000 years, dating back to the time of the Median empire, when it was known as "Ysatis" (or "Issatis"). The present city name has however been derived from Yazdegerd I, a Sassanid ruler. The city was definitely a Zoroastrian centre during Sassanid times. After the Arab Islamic conquest of Persia, people periodically faced extreme religious oppression including forced conversions, massacres, harassment, and other forms of discrimination, and then many fled to Yazd from neighbouring provinces. By paying a levy, Yazd remained Zoroastrian even after its conquest, and Islam only gradually became the dominant religion in the city.
Because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of approach, Yazd had remained largely immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persia during the invasion of Genghis Khan. It was visited by Marco Polo in 1272, who remarked on the city''s fine silk-weaving industry. In the book ''The Travels of Marco Polo'', he described Yazd in the following way:
"It is a good and noble city, and has a great amount of trade. They weave there quantities of a certain silk tissue known as Yasdi, which merchants carry into many quarters to dispose of. When you leave this city to travel further, you ride for seven days over great plains, finding harbour to receive you at three places only. There are many fine woods producing dates upon the way, such as one can easily ride through; and in them there is great sport to be had in hunting and hawking, there being partridges and quails and abundance of other game, so that the merchants who pass that way have plenty of diversion. There are also wild asses, handsome creatures. At the end of those seven marches over the plain, you come to a fine kingdom which is called Kerman."
It briefly served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the fourteenth century, and was unsuccessfully besieged in 1350−1351 by the Injuids under Shaikh Abu Ishaq. The Friday (or Congregation) Mosque, arguably the city''s greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. During the Qajar dynasty (18th Century AD) it was ruled by the Bakhtiari Khans.
Under the rule of the Safavid (16th century), some people migrated from Yazd and settled in an area which is today on the Iran-Afghanistan border. The settlement, which was named Yazdi, was located in what is now Farah city in the province of the same name in Afghanistan. Even today, people from the area speak with an accent very similar to that of the people of Yazd.
People of Yazd are very famous for being peaceful, strategist, and hardworking. One of the notable things about Yazd is its very family centric culture. According to the official statistics by Iran''s National Organization for Civil Registration, Yazd is among the 3 cities with lowest divorce rates in Iran. Architecture and heritageCeiling of a vault in the Bazaar of YazdUnder the Windcatcher of Dowlat Abad Garden
Yazd is of foremost importance as a centre of Persian architecture. Because of its climate, it has one of the largest networks of qanats in the world, and Yazdi qanat makers are considered the most skilled in Iran.
To deal with the extremely hot summers, many old buildings in Yazd have magnificent windcatchers, and large underground areas.
The city is also home to prime examples of yakhchals, the latter of which were used to store ice retrieved from glaciers in the nearby mountains. Yazd is also one of the largest cities built almost entirely out of adobe.
Yazd''s heritage as a center of Zoroastrianism is also important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, and the city itself has a Fire Temple, which holds a fire that has been kept alight continuously since 470 AD. Presently, Zoroastrians make up a significant minority of the population, around 20,000–40,000 or 5 to 10 per cent.
Built in 12th century and still being in use, Jame Mosque of Yazd is an example of finest Persian mosaics and excellent architecture. Its minarets are the highest in the country. Pilgrimage and other religious congregationsA window inside the structure under the Windcatcher of Dowlat Abad Garden
The Pir-e-Naraki sanctuary as one the important pilgrimage destinations for Zoroastrians to have annual congregation and frequent visits during the year is now also a famous tourist spot.
The story of the last Persian prince before the arrival of Islam to come here adds to its importance. Such a transformation has occurred several times.
The other type of public presence which created a certain urban form is the Muslim parades and congregational events. They are mainly Processions called “Azadari” are held to commemorate and remember the events that took for main Islamic Martyrs and important figures. These events due to their huge public scene created chains of spaces which in times other than the events were also used as spaces to tour main spots in the city since most of them were juxtaposed to important urban monuments. Historical sitesHouse of the Larry
- Fort Mosque
- Fortifications of Yazd
- Haj Yousef Reservoir
- House of Arab''ha
- House of Larry
- House of Malek al Tojjar
- House of Mortaz
- House of Rasoulian
- Iran Shahr School
- Jame Mosque of Yazd (Grand Mosque of Yazd)
- Khan Bazaar
- Mausoleum of Sahl Ibn Ali
- Mausoleum of Seyed Rokn al Din
- Mausoleum of Seyed Shams al Din
- Mullah Ismail Mosque
- Masoudi Reservoir
- Rig Mosque
- Sheikh Ahmad Fahadan Mausoleum
- Shah Tahmasb Mosque
- Zargari Bazzar
- Ziaiah school
Always known for the quality of its silk and carpets, Yazd today is one of Iran''s industrial centers for textiles. There is also a considerable ceramics and construction materials industry and unique confectionery and jewellery industries. A significant portion of the population is also employed in other industries including agriculture, dairy, metal works and machine manufacturing. There are a number of companies involved in the growing information technology industry, mainly manufacturing primary materials such as cables and connectors. Currently Yazd is the home of the largest manufacturer of fibre optics in Iran.
Yazd''s confectioneries have a tremendous following throughout Iran, which has been a source of tourism for the city. Workshops (experts or khalifehs) keep their recipes a guarded secret and there are many that have remained a private family business for many generations. Baghlava, ghotab and pashmak are the most popular sweets made in the city.
In 2000 the Yazd Water Museum opened; it features exhibits of water storage vessels and historical technologies related to water.
Yazd has expanded its industrial fields since the 1980s. With over 3 main industrial areas each containing over 70 different factories, Yazd has become one of the most technologically advanced cities of Iran. The most famous corporations include Yazd Steel, Shimi Plastic of Yazd, and Yazd Polymer. Transportation
In addition to its connection with major Iranian cities via railway, Yazd is served by the Shahid Sadooghi Airport. Famous people
- Mohammad Khatami, former president of Iran was born in Yazd.
- Mohammad Reza Aref, Vice President of Iran from 2001 to 2005.
- Mirza Mohammad Farrokhi Yazdi, poet and politician.
- Vahshi Bafghi, Poet.
- Mohammad Jafar Pouyandeh, Iranian dissident murdered in 1998.
- Moshe Katsav, former president of Israel, was born in Yazd.
- Habibollah Bitaraf, Former Minister of Energy.
- Seyyed Ziya-e-ddin Tabatabai, Iranian prime minister 21 Feb 1921-04 Jun 1921.
- Mohammad-Ali Eslami Nodooshan, Iranian author.
- Mehdi Azar Yazdi, author of children''s stories.
University of Yazd
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The University of Yazd was established in 1988. It has a college of Architecture specializing in traditional Persian Art and Architecture. Yazd and its nearby towns contain the following institutes of higher education:Yazd Science and Research University of Yazd Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services payame noor university of Yazd – pnu Yazd Institute of Higher Education – ACECR Islamic Azad University of Bafq Islamic Azad University of Maybod Islamic Azad University of Yazd Yazd Sampad Information Center Yazd Science and Technology Park University of Jame Elmi_Karbordi of Yazd Imam Java University College Shahid Sadoughi High school(Tizhooshan) Shahid Sadoughi Middle school(Tizhooshan) Farzanegan Middle school(Tizhooshan) Farzanegan High school(Tizhooshan)
Secondary schools in Yazd include Iranshahr High School. Sister cities